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摘要

本篇出處 國立中山大學社會科學季刊 2:4 民89.冬 頁197-239
篇名 中央集權與地方分權--兩岸地方菁英態度傾向之比較研究
作者 蔡天助
中文摘要        記憶是學習的表徵,沒有記憶,即無法肯定已否學習,因此記憶是認知心理學家最重要的研究主題。本文擬先從典型的訊息處理模式分析,進一步詳述長期記憶中訊息編碼與提取的相關問題,最後再以超越典型模式的多重記憶系統探究之。 「典型的心智式」(modal model of the mind)也就是傳繞的訊息處理模式,是記憶的思考與解釋的架釋的架構。此模式提及三種記憶貯存,分別是感官記憶、運作記憶(或短期記憶)與長期記憶。每種記憶貯存各自包含功能、容量與時限等三種特徵。此模式也說明了另一組控制歷程,就是複誦、編碼與提取。在長期記憶的編碼方面,將針對反覆複誦、精緻化、組織化與視覺化等四方面探究;在長期記憶的提取方面,將針對心理聯想與記憶提取線索之相關研究,以及扭曲的記憶建構兩部份探究之。 超越典型模式的多重記憶系統,分為明確記憶與隱含記憶兩類。明確記憶又稱為陳述性記憶,因為記憶訊息能經由文字所描述,又可細分為情節記憶與語意記憶。隱含記憶又叫做非陳述性的記憶,可能是先前獲得的概念,影響了後來的行為或思考,而未能進入意識覺察中。其內容一部份是程序性記憶,一部份是古典制約產生的效果,另一部份則是知覺或概念促發的效果。 目前有關隱含記憶的研究,以及它與明確記憶的交互作用,就是一種科學性的創造思考,相信一定能產生一種新的屬於人類心靈更前進的基模。
英文摘要        Memory is the symbol of learning. It's hard to ensure if learning happens if we have no memory. Therefore memory is the important research topic in cognitive psychology. The purposes of this paper were first to analyze the modal information-processing model of memory, then to describe related issues about the encoding and retrieval of the long-term memory, and finally to explore the multiple memory systems which beyond the modal model. The modal model of the mind was the traditional information-processing model of memory. It had served as a general framework for thinking and talking about the mind. The model portrayed the mind as containing three memory stores: sensory memory, working (or short-term) memory, and longterm memory. Each storage was characterized by its function, its capacity, and its duration. In addition to the stores, the model specified a set of control processes, such as as rehearsal , encoding and retrieval. Studies on the encoding of the long-term memory including rote rehearsal, elaboration, organization, and visualization were explored in this paper. Research on the retrieval of the long-term memory, including mental associations, memory retrieval cues, and memory constructon as a source of distortion, was also explored. Beyond the modal model is the multiple memory systems which include explicit memory and implicit memory. Explicit memory was also called declarative memory because the remembered information can declared or stated in words. Explicit memory can be divided into two subclasses, episodic and semantic. Implicit memory was also called nondeclarative memory, in which previously acquired influenced behavior or thought without itself entering consciousness. Among the subclasses of implicit memory were the memories produced by classical conditioning, perceptual priming, and conceptual priming. A large part of implicit memory is called procedural memory. Current research on implicit memory and its interaction with explicit memory was the creative thinking of science. It may produce a new and improved schema of the human mind.