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臺灣期刊論文索引

摘要

本篇出處 政治科學論叢 14 民90.06 頁47-74
篇名 羅爾斯與政治哲學的實際任務
作者 陳宜中
中文摘要        羅爾斯是二十紀下半期的西方思想發展最重要的人物之一,但是在他的早期著作(《正義論》)與晚期作品(如《政治性自由主義》)之間,似乎存在著些重大的轉折變化。雖然旌爾斯並未更動他早所提倡的「正義即公平」此一正義觀的實質內容,但卻大幅度地改變了他的正義理論的性格、對象、訴求、以及証立方式,以至於他最後決定提出一套名之為「政治性自由主義」的新典範。與此同時,他特別強調「政治哲學的實際任務」這個問題為焦點,探討政治性自由主義此一新典範所涉及的邏輯變化、証立策以及弔詭後果,並分析「穩定的社會整合」、「政治層面的省思均衡」、「適合憲政政體的正義觀」、「政治合理性」、「重疊共識」等關鍵概念。此外,作者提出一個自己的詮釋點,認為性自由主義是一套帶有強烈政治使命感與歷史意的實踐性學說,其終極目標在於為(美國)憲政政體開創出可長可久的穩定與和平。
英文摘要        Rawls's transition from 'justice as fairness' to 'political liberalism' has aroused intense controversy over the nature of the Rawlsian project. This article takes up this contentious issue and aims to place Rawls's 'political turn' of political liberalism the various dominant readings. It argues that the 'practical task' of political liberalism consists principally in working out the most 'stable' public conception of justice, one, that is, which is most capable of stabilizing the constitutional regime. Towards this end, Rawls has decided to leave behind the three egalitarian elements of justice as fairness-namely, the fair value of political liberties, fair equal opportunity, and the difference principle-for the reason that these egalitarian principles have become too controversial to be stable. Justice as fairness is to be replaced with a more stable conception, that is, a minimum yet reasonable liberal conception of justice covering the constitutional essentials and, with it, the idea of public reason. Political liberalism is no more than a logical working out of Rawls's minimum yet reasonable liberal conception of justice. And if this is the price that Rawls has to pay for his obsession with stability, he has paid it with great willingness and philosophical sophistication. Through a critical examination of Rawls's arguments, this article aims to highlight the irreducibly 'political' character of political liberalism. It suggests that the latter should best be understood as a species of 'justice as stability', in which the stability of the constitutional regime has become an absolute priority.