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摘要

本篇出處 人口學刊 24 民91.06 頁89-139
篇名 Urbanization and the Changing System of Cities in Socialist China: A Historical and Geographic Assessment
作者 林初昇
中文摘要   經濟改革和全球化加速了中國大陸人口的城市化,本文評估中國大陸自1949年以來城市人口和城市體系之結構性和空間性重組。在1978年改革以前,中國的城市體系向以大都市所主導,出於國防的考慮,大多數新建城市集中在中部和西部地區。近年經濟改革和政治放權給予大量的小城市新的發展空間,與此同時,全球化的力量進一步鞏固東部地區在中國城市化的領導地位,無數小城市和城鎮接納了大量的農村剩餘人口,然而大都市依然是投資和生產最有效的經濟中心。中國過去50年的城市發展深為政府干預所左右,改革開放前大都市的主導地位與改革開放後小城市的迅猛發展互相結合和重疊,形成現時獨特的中國雙軌城市體系。
英文摘要   Globalization and market reforms have significantly facilitated urbanization of the population of the People's Republic of China. This study assesses the structural and spatial redistribution of urban populatíon and Chinese cities since the founding of the People's Republic in 1949. Prior to the 1978 economic reforms, the system of cities created by the Maoist regime was dominated by large and ,extra-large cities because of the imperatives of optimal industrialization. For national defense considerations most of the new cities were created in the central and western interior rather than the eastern coast. Market reforms and relaxation of state control over local development since the late 1970s have allowed a large number of small cities to flourish on the basis of bottom-up rural transformative development. The intrusion of global market forces has helped re-consolidate the dominance of the east coast in China's urban development. Although small cities and towns have absorbed large number of rural migrants, large and extra-large cities have remained the most efficient and productive economic centers for capital investment and production. China's urban development over the past five decades has been a direct outcome of state articulation and reconfiguration against different political and economic contexts. A superimposed dual-track system of urban settlements integrating the Maoist legacy of large city dominance at the top with the rapidly expanding component of small cities and towns at the bottom is quickly taking shape to characterize China's urban development and urbanization.