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臺灣期刊論文索引

摘要

本篇出處 社會發展研究學刊 4 民91.10 頁3-30
篇名 從公民社會觀點對社區工作模式的初步建構
作者 李易駿
中文摘要   臺灣推展社區工作三十餘年來,概以社區發展協會為主要的推展單位,並採由上而下的建設模式。此一模式在近年來受到相當的反省及質疑。1987年臺灣政治解嚴以來,臺灣初具「公民社會」特性,但是社區工作並未真正的「解嚴」,政府仍相當介入社區工作,且社區工作受到政府行政立即績效的要求、政治勢力的地方經營與動員等力量的擠壓並未能有效落實。 公民社會是當代重要的社會政治思潮之一,其強調受到法律保護而獨立於國家之社會生活領域及社會價值,著重民眾對社會組織的志願性參與。另一方面,公民社會亦可被視為一種分析的概念,即經由對社會內所存在的制度、組織進行檢驗,來突顯自由、平等地參與社會組織的重要特性。 本文嘗試從公民社會的民主結社角度,來分析當前的社區組織工作。本主總結當前社區工作的主要問題有六:「社區工作應否藉由特定單一的組織來進行?」;「政府在社區工作中扮演何種角色?」;「社區內的各種社區組織的管理問題」;「社區組織的任務為何?社區工作的目的為何?」;「政府與社會應如何合作推動社區工作?」;「社區工作與政府行政、地方建設有何區別,尤其是社區工作與里鄰基層工作的合作分工問題?」。而各項社區工作問題的主要原因在於「歷史發展的限制」、「社區工作之目標、任務、資源間的不協調」。 最後,本文嘗試提出公民社會模式的社區工作策略,並從「目標」、「變革的動力與機制」、「策略」、「社工員的角色」、「人力與資源」、「與政府的關係」及「自主性」等七部分來說明以公民社會的社區模式。最後建議:社區組織應更具志願性人民團體的特質,各種社區團體可以自由籌組,不受限制。如此,社區組織的自主性將更為提高。而在政府單位的社區型業務推展方面,政府單位應視方案需要與社區組織的運作實效予以獎勵或方案委託,而非採取補助之作法;相對地,政府單位的方案規劃必須更為合理,及政府與社區組織間的關係更為對等。
英文摘要   Community Work in Taiwan has been under the domain of all levels of governments for thirty years and has been noted as a top-to-down model. The political democratization initiated in 1987 has not yet democratized the community work because the community work is still facing the pressure of immediate success and political mobilization. To reconstruct a model for community work we need to offer an analytical foundation and show what community work is supposed to aim at. The concept of civil society properly serves for such research. Civil society is an important western thought which emphasizes the legal protection and independence of social voluntary participation in community. The concept of civil society can be used as an analytical framework for measuring the operation of social institutions and organizations. It is also a concept suitable for checking if the values of freedom, equal participation and voluntaries exist in the social institutions. This research focused on issues below: the improper single organization model, the governmental roles in community work, the management of organizations within the community, the missions and aims of community work, the cooperation between governments and community, the difference between community work and local governmental construction services, etc. In conclusion, a model from the civil society perspective is proposed, which is framed from seven angles listed as the aims, the motivation of reform, the strategies, the role of social workers, human resources, the relationship with local authorities and the autonomy. The main implication for government is that the instant release of improper restriction on community organization is necessary. In this model, the present community work in Taiwan will be inspired to head for a possible and different future.