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臺灣期刊論文索引

摘要

本篇出處 興大歷史學報 14 民92.06 頁133-153
篇名 清末民初上海商業組織多元化趨勢之探討
作者 張桓忠
中文摘要   傳統中國社會的社會組織,在親緣關係上,不外家族、宗族;地緣關係不外同鄉、鄰里;而業緣關係,也主要以同業、師徒為主軸。至清末民初,此結構受到社會、經濟環境變遷的影響,快速解體轉化,這種現象在上海尤為明顯。 上海各式各樣商人社團,即隨著上海經濟社會發展而產生的。從早期單純結合地緣關係的會館、公所,到後來由於西方工業產品的輸入,而經營方式逐漸發生變化,進而產生了新的商業團體。上海商人即透過這些商業性的組織團體發揮其影響力。此外,他們也參與非商業性的組織,例如政治組織、社會組織,甚至一些以文化為主軸的團體。 在社團組織中,他們整合群力,積蘊能量,在民初紛擾的政局中,成為穩定社會、經濟的角色。
英文摘要   In the social organization of traditional China, the relationships were families and partiarchal clans. The geographical relationships were Shan (鄉), Lin (鄰), and Li (里); while the occupational relationships were mainly based on running the same business, master and appretice. Up to the end of Ching Dynasty and the early days of the Republic of China, influenced by the transition of social and economic environment, this trend destructed and transformed quickly. The phenomenon was especially obvious in Shanghai. Shanghai contained all kinds of business societies. That was, it happened with the social and economic developments of Shanghai from the early union buildings and official offices which are simply connected with the geographical relationships to the entry of western industrial products. The way to run a business began to change. As a result, the new business groups appeared. Businessmen in Shanghai then performed their effects through these business organizations or groups. In addition, they also took part in non-business groups, such as political organizations, social organizations and even some groups which focused on culture. They united all strength and accumulated energy in the social organizations. In the disorderly political situation of the early days of the Republic of China, they played an important role on the stability of society and economics.