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摘要

本篇出處 高應科大人文社會科學學報 1 民93.07 頁143-156
篇名 康德對「審美判斷力」的論述
作者 林群英
中文摘要   判斷力中介自然人到道德人的特殊心理功能,是溝通理解力與理性的官能,它須先有普通概念決定判斷力),再有特殊個物(反省判斷力)。審美判斷屬於康德著作《判斷力批判》書中的前半部。人類天生就有分辨善惡、美醜的「內在的感官」(或稱「第六感官」)的能力,這種能力源於自然,屬於南的心和理性的部分,它具有審美能力。 理性是人性的善根(人之初、性本善),它適合於社會生活的道德品質,它使心靈活動,在性情中見出美醜。善是美的、惡是醜的,因此道德感美感相同,康德說:「美是道德的象徵」,使審美與憐憫、慈祥、公正相關聯,此即美的社會性(或社會美)。美感只注意表面的感性性質(如聲、色),而愛則觀照對象感性性質的增悅。愛是一種「複合的情欲」,它是美感的主要心理內容美感的主要心理內容,美是一種社會性質,它滿足人的群居要求,它不涉及欲望,所以美感是無私的。美感具有必然性,美的對象必然引起人的滿足感或快感。必然性不涉及理知及概念,所以是主觀的。美感就是對象的主觀合目的性所造成的內外契合的快感。 康德所稱的審美判斷力,就是欣賞、品鑒、趣味等。他認為判斷力與知性有關,於是運用認識論中知性的四項範疇(量、質、關係、模態)來考察審美判斷的分析。
英文摘要   The particular psychological function that judging ability intermediates between natural people and moral people is performed by the organ to channel comprehension and rationality. It firstly needs to have ordinary concept (to decide judging ability), then have particular individual object (introspection judging ability). The judging ability to esthetic appreciation is the first part of the book of Kant’s “criticism to judging ability.” Humans have inborn ability in distinguishing good form evil, and beautifulness from ugliness which is the “internal organ” (or the 6th sense organ). This ability is originated form nature belonging to a human being’s psycho and rational part, which is born with esthetic appreciation ability. Rationality is the benign root of human nature (our disposition is benign when we human beings were born). It suits moral quality of social life, makes spirits active, and distinguishes beautifulness and ugliness from true disposition. Benignancy is beautiful and malignancy is ugly, so the sense of morality and estheticism is all the same. Kant said: “estheticism is the symbol of morality,” which relates esthetic appreciation to sympathy, kindness and justness; that is, the socialization of estheticism (or social estheticism). The sense of estheticism only focuses on ostensible sensible nature (such as sound and color), yet love cares about the recipient’s sensible nature of joyfulness. Love is a sort of “compound emotional desire,’ and it is also the main psychological content in the sense of estheticism. Estheticism is a sort of social nature, which is content with people’s demand for socialization, since not involved in desire, its sense is unselfish. The sense of estheticism has its necessity, and the recipient of the sense of estheticism must be able to trigger people’s sense of contentedness and pleasant feeling. Necessity does not get implied in rationality and conceptuality, so it is subjective. The sense of estheticism is the pleasant felling of inner and outer harmony caused by the recipient’s subjectivity implying the nature of purpose. The so-called judging ability to the esthetic appreciation as mentioned by Kant is appreciating, tasting, and making fun. He believed that judging ability is a kind of perception, so the perception’s scope of our items (quantity, quality, relationship, module status) in his arguments has been applied to analyze judging esthetic appreciation.