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臺灣期刊論文索引

摘要

本篇出處 國立臺灣大學建築與城鄉研究學報 2:1 民72.06 頁123-150
篇名 風水:中國人的環境觀念架構
作者 漢寶德
中文摘要   本文的內容大體分爲兩段。第一段爲研究中國讀書人對風水的看法,以及風水自漢代以來演變的大要。自研究中得知,知識份子對風水一直持有兩種不同的態度。懷疑論者認係迷信,相信者則認係天理的一部分。自朱以來,持有懷疑態度者就很少了。從文獻研究中,本文提出風水理論漁變的時代分野爲宋元之際,在此之前,「五音地理」一直是風水的主流,在些以後,乃有形家、向家之分。形家以郭璾漢的葬經爲理論依據,向家則源自漢代以來天文與驗陽之合流,至宋,得到理學家理論的支持,乃大爲昌盛。至明代未來,知識份子推波助瀾,風水著作泛濫,理論與實務愈見紛歧,至於今日。第二部份爲本文之主旨。乃分別敘述形家、向家在風水理論與實務上之基本架構,如何形成中國人的生存環境的觀念。形家的觀念,實乃中國人對大自然中山水組變形態的一種解釋,具有常識上的穩定性的生態的合理性,從被爲神秘性的界說。至於向法,則爲中國人對宇宙的一種看法,經過五行八卦的運作而形成的一套系統。五行生態是價值判斷的理論根據。文中討論了八卦、二十四向五行系統的觀念,並提出風水的系統,如何自純粹的態空間觀念,結合了時間的觀念,再進而與命相之學相融合,形成一種雄和多項迷信的結合體,支配屯中國人兩千年來對環境的認識與價值判斷。
英文摘要   This paper is composed of two parts. The first part is a study of the attitude of Chinese intellectuals toward feng-shui and a review of feng-shui as a development from the Han dynasty. We find the attitude of the intellctuals quite divided, Skeptics think it contradicts Confucian principles. Others believe it because it is a part of the people accept it as integrated with neo-Confucian philosophy. From this study it is pointed out that there is a breaking point around the end of the Sung dynasty Before that, functional theory was based on the classical five sound system After that it was divided into the theory of land form arid the of orientation. The theory of land form as acceptable to almost all feng-shui professionals. The theory of orientation was divided further into different schools The second part of the paper describes the two theories as a basic conceptual structure of the Chinese way of looking at the physical environment and also as a way of applying it to practical circumstances. The land form as an interpretation of natural landscape has an ecological basis The orientation theory developed into a kind of mystical system which used the five elements and the eight trigrams The paper describes the process of divination using the five elements and the eight trigrams relating to space and the incorporation of the time factor with this As time went on, this process vas adopted by those diviners who dealt with personal fortunes Thus it developed into a complicated, all encompassing web that enveloped the whole of Chinese life.