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臺灣期刊論文索引

摘要

本篇出處 臺灣社會研究季刊 23 民85.07 頁1-81
篇名 械鬥和清朝臺灣社會
作者 許達然
中文摘要        本文探討清朝台灣 125 件械鬥的背景、導因、類別、地區、頻率、與民變的關係、及社會整合的問題。清朝台灣發生五種械鬥:閩粵(36次)、漳泉(25次)、異姓(27次 )、同姓(6次)、和同業(21次),其他一件泉籍內鬥、九件不詳。閩粵及漳泉族群械鬥次數佔一半,規模較大,影響深遠。1862年以後,姓氏團體械鬥增加,然而族群械鬥基本上卻停息了。台灣宗族的成立、居民的防備措施、社會經濟的改變、業主動員能力的減退、地方官對抗租等爭端的調處、及土豪列紳對治安的支持都可排除族群械鬥。一個半世紀的械鬥終於迫使閩南祖籍和客家台灣人和平共存。但台灣到十九世紀末仍未建成社會融和。
英文摘要        Internecine strife (hsieh-tou) defined Han settlers' antagonistic social relations in Taiwan from the first quarter of the eighteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century. This paper examines the background, causation, areas, and frequency of 125 instances of strife, their relationship with popular uprisings, and ensuing problems of social integration. Armed conflict first prevailed between different settlers from Chang-chou and Ch'uan-chou prefectures of southern Fukien, and between these Fukienese and the Hakka. It also erupted among the identical surname groups, between the different surname groups, and between the same occupational groups. In spite of increase in surname group strife, Han ethnic groups virtually ceased fighting after the 1860's. Besides the formation of lineage and communal alliance, residents' efforts to defuse conflict, landowners' diminishing capabilities of mobilization, government officials' mediation of disputes over land tenure, the demand for labor in the production of commercial crops, and local elite's attempt to maintain social order all contributed to preclude the possibility of strife. The cessation of Fukienese-Hakka strife signaled the ending of group fission and the beginning of group fusion in Taiwan after the mid-nineteenth century.