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臺灣期刊論文索引

摘要

本篇出處 輔仁歷史學報 9 民87.06 頁179-241
篇名 士紳、商人與慈善:民國初年一個慈善性宗教團體「世界紅卍字會」
作者 宋光宇
中文摘要        中國自宋代以降,一直有一個以社會救濟為手段,以達到宗教救贖目的的修行傳統。這個傳統在二十世紀得到發揚光大的機會。由於連年的天災人禍,西洋的基督教和天主教率先在中國各地從事社會慈善救濟工作。一批前清及北洋政府的退職高官有鑒於此,遂組成像世界紅卍字會,救世新教之類的宗教團體,也積極的在各地災區從事救濟工作。言外之意,就是在防堵西洋人勢力的擴大。二十世紀中國的知識界充滿了〞反宗教〞的氣氛,受西方教育的知識份子卑視佛教、道教以及任何本土教派,斥之為迷信,而前清北洋之退職高官與地方仕紳卻相率加入這些教派,形成對抗的局面,終而有北伐成功以後的政教衝突。及至一九五○年以後,大陸上以「反動會道門」為藉口,禁絕了所有的教派。在臺灣因法令及社會環境的改變,原先的各種社會救濟工作施展不開,終而使世界紅卍字會衰落為一個以靜坐和扶乩為主要活動的宗教團體。
英文摘要        In early 20 century, there were many natural disasters and wars over eastern part of China. Many people died or lost their personal propertis in those tragedies. Thus, they needed help. Some retired officials of former ch'ing and northern government, local gentry and businessmen organized a religious group, so-called "Tao-yuan"(道院),for their religious practice. They established a division of Tao-yuan for social welfare and charity. This division was named The Global Red Swastika Society (Shih-jeh hung-wan-tzu hui世界紅卍字會).   In 1928, the Nationalist Government forbade three religious sects, including Tao-yuan, Tung-shan-she(同善社), and Wu-shan-she(悟善社), because these sects practiced automatic writing to say something about the Three Principles of People(三民主義) and angered the Nationalist Government. Then, The Global Red Swastika Society became the formal representative of the Tao-yuan, and dealed many important social charity programs between 1928-1945.   Major charity works of the Global Red Swastika Society were establishing free clinics for common people, distributing medicines for summer epidemics in countryside, establishing free primary schools for children of poor families, and providing food twice per day for poor and homeless people in the winter, supporting charity houses for orphans and widows etc., According to traditional Chinese religious tradition, such charity works might accumulate personal charity credicts (kung-te功德). Certain ammount of such charity credicts will change personal destiny to a good development. Thus, religious group played an important role for promoting these charity credicts and its social welfares.