國家圖書館 期刊文獻資訊網

連結國家圖書館 連結期刊文獻資訊網

臺灣期刊論文索引

摘要

本篇出處 國家科學委員會研究彙刊. 人文及社會科學 8:3 民87.07 頁373-395
篇名 書房、書院與鸞堂--試探清末和日據時代臺灣的宗教演變
作者 宋光宇
中文摘要        臺灣在清末割讓給日本的時候,有一千七百多間的書房和四十五間書院,受業學 生三萬人以上。日本殖民統治之後,書院幾乎摧殘迨盡,可是書房卻只是緩慢的沒落。有不 少的書房成功的轉變成為鸞堂,在光復以後,有一些殘存的書院也相率加入鸞堂的行列,終 而復興起來。這種轉變的關鍵就在於扶乩活動。在明清兩代,扶乩是文人墨客的遊藝活動, 臺灣的文人也承受這個風氣,在清光緒年間,地方上的士人就在他們的書房扶乩寫訓成或是 開藥方,以濟渡世人。同時,也用各種因果報應故事作為書房書院的教材。臺灣的文人自認 為這就是儒家的教化。於是,儒家就可以分成文人性的儒家和宗教性的儒家,兩者是相輔相 成的。在日據時代,日本政府一方面大力扶持文人性的儒家活動,另一方面卻是大力鎮壓宗 教性的儒家活動。可是,臺灣的文人卻是利用文人色彩來掩護宗教性的儒家活動,終而使書 房成功的轉化為鸞堂。
英文摘要        In Late Ch'ing Taiwan, there were 1707 private schools and 30,000 students. After the Japanese colonized Taiwan in 1895, the formal education system was dismantled by the Japanese colonial authority, and a new education system gradually installed. Before this time school teachers and local gentry commonly took part in spirit-writing activities in both Late Ch'ing China and Taiwan. After Taiwan became a Japanese colony, many of these teachers and members of the local gentry moved from the formal schools to shrines where they engaged in spirit-writing. Of the two different types of Confucianism in Late Ch'ing Taiwan, literary and religious, the spirit-writing cult exemplified the religious side of Confucianism. The Japanese colonial authority favored literary Confucianism but supressed its religious counterpart, in part because the spirit-writing cult led a movement in opposition to opium in the 1910s and hence reduced revenues from the annual opium tax. At the same time, the spirit-writing cult conveyed traditional Confucian values, including loyalty to the political authority and the criticism of social problems. Thus, the colonial government considered certain aspects of the cult conducive to a stable, submissive society. In the context of this ambivalent attitude of the government, the cult developed in the last half of Japanese colonial rule.