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摘要

本篇出處 廣告學研究 12 民88.01 頁1-37
篇名 西方公共關係理論學派之探討--90年代理論典範的競爭與辯論
作者 黃懿慧
中文摘要        本文針對當前西方公共關係辯論議題進行探討。 本文探討公關理論的三個主要 學派:管理學派、語藝學派以及整合行銷傳播學派。本論文目的不在比較學派間的優劣,而 旨於探討公共關係主要學派的論點,並剖析其中的異同,希望藉此擴大學派間對話的空間, 進一步評估未來學術研究的發展趨勢。研究的主題包括: 1. 公共關係理論大致可區分為那些學派?主要的研究者與著作為何? 2. 各學派對公共關係 的界說為何? 3. 各學派的理論基礎與基本假設為何? 4. 各學派的主要論述為何? 對理論 發展的貢獻與爭議為何? 5. 公共關係理論未來的發展方向為何?管理學派認為公共關係是 組織的「溝通管理者」,業務處理的範圍則涵蓋所有組織與公眾間可能透過「溝通」解決的 問題,其中尤其包括日益增多的「抗爭」與「衝突」事件。管理學派主張公共關係必須發揮 「理想性」與「實用性」的功能,秉持「雙向對等溝通」、「混合動機模式」與「策略管理 」的理念,兼顏組織與公眾的利益,透過裁判、協商與合作的方式解決問題。語藝學派則認 為公共關係是組織的「修辭者」,因此,舉凡與符號產製有關的業務,譬如:口號、標語、 宣傳、公共演說等,都是公關人員的職責所在,形象與名譽管理更是工作重點。語藝學派重 視大眾傳播效果,強調公關人員必須發揮實用性的功能,爭取組織與客戶的利益。另一方面 ,語藝學派也主張,公關人員必須扮演組織「軍械庫」的角色,發揮「抗辯」的「保守性」 功能,就服閱聽眾採納組織的立場與觀點。整合行銷傳播學派亦認為公共關係應該發揮「實 用性」的功能。此學派主張,公關業務主要是要處理「行銷推廣」的問題,「訊息傳遞」是 公關人員的重要職責,目的是為了增加產品銷售、服務使用,以及維持或加強消費者的品牌 忠誠度。此學派重視「資料庫行銷」與一對一傳播,並強調「單一訊息」的重要性。由於三 學派對某特定議題的重視程度相當, 下列研究主題應有其未來的發展潛力:( 1 )公共關 係理論中有關「組織一公眾關係」的界定與測量, ( 2 )資訊科技在公關上的應用與研究 ,( 3 )「國際公關」的趨勢與發展, ( 4 )批判研究的興起與發展,( 5 )社會運動 與抗爭衝突對公共關係的影響與衝擊,以及( 6 )公共關係與新聞媒體的關聯性研究。
英文摘要        This paper addresses the following critical issues in public This paper addresses the following critical issues in public relations theories: a) What are the major approaches to western public relations theories? b) What are the main theoretical assumptions and assertions in each approach? c) What are the major contributions and critical controversies surrounding these approaches? And, d) What are the prospects of public relations theories for the future? Three major approaches to public relations theories are discussed in this paper: the management perspective, the rhetorical perspective, and the integrated-marketing-communication perspective. The management perspective, assuming a symmetric worldview, defines the role of public relations in society from an idealistic and normative point of view. Scholars in this perspective advocate that public relations must be a management function and that public relations should contribute to the public interest and to social responsibility. Grunig and other scholars suggested that public relations must be involved in the strategic manage- ment of the total organization and should manage its own programs strategically for the function to contribute to organizational effectiveness. In this perspective, public relations is regarded as including the functions of dissemination of information, resolution of conflict, pro- motion of mutual understanding, and contributing to informed debate about issues in society. Scholars adopting rhetorical the perspective advocate that public relations be regarded as organizations' rhetors to communicate with their key audiences. The function of public relations is identified as the formation of symbols and ideologies to influence society and individuals. Through open contest of ideas, the costs and interests of the contending parties in an issue are negotiated. In essence, public relations is assumed to perform a conservative and pragmatic social role in this perspective. The perspective of integrated marketing communication (IMC) underlies the commercial practice of public relations and typically allies it with marketing objectives. Public relations is identified as performing a pragmatic social role. In other words, the evaluation of effectiveness of public relations is based on how much public relations contributes to the bottom line of an organization. This paper suggests several directions for public relations research in the future: the measurement of organization-public relationships, the implications of technologies in public relations, global public relations, critical approaches to public relations, conflict resolution, and the interaction between mass media and public relations.