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臺灣期刊論文索引

摘要

本篇出處 臺灣史研究 4:1 民88.04 頁149-196
篇名 二次大戰臺灣遭受戰害之研究
作者 張建俅
中文摘要        二次大戰為人類歷史上規模最大的一次戰爭,當時臺灣做為日本的殖民地或者說 領土的一部份,也捲入了戰爭的漩渦當中。不但許多臺灣人自願或被徵調遠赴海外從軍,臺 灣本土也曾經遭受空襲的攻擊,以及海上的封鎖,造成了極大的破壞和損失。本文共分四個部 分,分別討論:一、盟軍對臺各種軍事行動;二、空襲對臺灣造成的破壞;三、戰爭對臺灣造成 的各種間接損失;四、臺灣人的戰爭經驗。 盟軍從1938年起先後有蘇聯、中國、美國空軍對臺灣進行轟炸與偵察,其中尤以1944 年後美軍的轟炸,對臺灣造成的破壞最大。根據各項調查顯示,在人員、房屋、都市、交通、 工業、衛生等各方面都遭受嚴重的損害。除了空襲之外,由於盟軍的封鎖,使得臺灣的農業 生產、對外貿易、物資供應等遭到極大的損失;此外臺灣人在戰時的種種經驗,充斥在許多民 間記載與文學作品當中,其對戰爭的恐懼、無奈、驚訝、憤怒,尤其是經由共同遭受戰爭威 脅而產生的一體感,在在都成為臺灣人歷史記憶的一部份。 透過日、中各項統計數字的分析、歸納之後,可以了解臺灣當時所遭受的戰爭損害極為 可觀。特別是在日治時期有長足發展的都市、工業、交通、衛生等足以代表臺灣現代化成果 的各項建設,在經過戰火的洗禮以後,可說陷入殘破的局面。固然部分設施可以經由臺灣本 身的資源與人力,逐漸地加以恢復,但許多設施卻必須仰賴外來的物資、設備甚至資金,否 則幾乎沒有重建的可能。由此看來,臺灣的戰爭損害,不但在程度上比過去想像中來的嚴重, 其對臺灣實質經濟方面的打擊,亦對戰後的重建產生深遠的影響。
英文摘要        The World War II is the biggest war in human history. Being a Japanese colony at that time, Taiwan could not help involving with the war. Some Taiwanese volunteered and some were forced to join the army, even went to overseas. Besides, Taiwan itself was attacked by air and blockaded by sea, which cause great damages and losses. This paper discusses about four points; the first, the allies army's military action toward Taiwan; secondly, the damage situation from air attack; the third, the losses during the blockade period; and the fourth, the war experience of Taiwanese. From 1938 to the end of the World War II, there were air forces from Soviet Union, China and the United States, who had bombed and spied Taiwan. Especially the U. S. air force's bombing after 1944, they made terribly damages to Taiwan. According to many investigations, American's air attack hit cities, traffic, industry facilities and sanitation heavily, and killed many persons. Moreover, the allies army's blockade caused great losses of Taiwan's agriculture production and reduced foreign trade, supply of goods and materials, etc. Besides, the experience of war is filled with many oral traditions and literature, which contained with fear, surprise, anger and against the war. Through suffering from the war, the war experiences became memories of all Taiwanese. After analyzing many statistics of Japanese and Chinese data, theresult shows that Taiwan suffered tremendous war damage. Particularly, those developments of cities, industry, traffic and sanitation, which had been thought to be very successful in Japanese colonial period and representing the accomplishment of modernization of Taiwan, were nearly gone with the war. Of course, some facilities could be rebuilt by Taiwan itself, but in many ways it had to rely on the help from the Nationalist China, especially with funds. Without those supports, it was impossible to reconstruct. After all, the serious damages of war in Taiwan are beyond imagination; they hit the economy of Taiwan heavily and lasted, even in the first few years after the war.