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臺灣期刊論文索引

摘要

本篇出處 長榮大學學報 15:1 2011.06[民100.06] 頁31-57
篇名 中國民族主義探原--中國漢字古籍聖、凶與華、夷的書寫之解構
作者 莊萬壽
中文摘要   當今中國的霸權思想,不是起於馬克思主義,而是起於中國傳統民族主義,二千多年前起,中國的華夏民族即以為自己居世界的中心,是優秀民族,視四方夷狄民族都是禽獸,必頇臣服於中國。而且強調華夏中國是「黃帝子孫」的一族主義。 本文追述中國民族主義的原始,使用漢字的華夏民族在最早的經典《尚書》《左傳》,即將華、夷對比為聖、凶。尤其後來的《史記》將史前的部落社會最早的領袖,稱為黃帝, 並附會為夏、商、周、秦等民族(王朝)的祖先。 事實遠古時付,不同的民族,各稱本族的祖先,漢字稱「皇帝」,「皇」與「黃」同音,而誤傳為同一始祖。而一些外來政權,為標榜華夏民族的正統性,也自稱是「黃帝之後」,但千年前黃帝的政治號召早尌已消退了。直到二十世紀初,中國反清革命黨人,才又倡「黃帝子孫」,抗日戰爭時也高喊「中華民族」。 中國所統治的土地上的民族,是極多元的,「黃帝子孫」、「中華民族」都是虛構,本論文從最古的漢字經典,元元本本,一一考據,對偏見的種族主義與一元化的民族主義加以解構,於學界或許是首篇之作。
英文摘要   Today, China’s hegemony is not rooted in Marxism, but in traditional Chinese nationalism. Since two thousand years ago, the Chinese nation (“HuaShia”) considers itself the superior people, located in the center of the world. It views the surrounding foreign (“YiDi”) nations as barbarian peoples, or “beasts”, that must submit to the Chinese power. The Chinese nation further emphasizes uni-ethnicism—all Chinese people are the descendents of Huangdi, or inside the "Huangdi Zi Sun" family. This paper investigates the origin of Chinese nationalism. In early literature such as classic "Shang Shu", "Zuo Zhuan", the Hanji-using Chinese nation likens the contrasts of Chinese v. Barbarians to Saint v. Evil. In particular, the later Historical Records “ShiJi” names the earliest prehistoric tribal leaders Yellow Emperor (“HuangDi”), and strains an interpretation that HuangDi is the common ancestor of several nations (dynasties), including Shia, Shang, Chou, Chin, and other ethnic peoples. In far ancient times, in fact, different nations call their ancestors as “HuangDi” (“Yellow Emperor”), where the Hanji character “Huang” can be interpreted as either “Yellow,” or “Emperor.” This ambiguity of interpretation causes the misconception that these nations share the same ancestor. Some foreign invaders also claim themselves as “the descendants of HunagDi,” to obtain the legitimate seat of “the Chinese nation”. At the turn of twentieth century, the revolutionists against Ching again claim themselves as “the descendants of HunagDi.” Same slogan “Chinese nation” is shouted out again during Sino-Japanese War. However, the political appeal of “Yellow Emperor” has faded thousands year ago. Nations or peoples residing on the land ruled by today’s China are extremely diverse. Thus, terms such as "HuangDi Zi Sun" and "Chinese nation" are fictitious. This paper examines numerous literature in Hanji (Chinese characters), including the oldest available classic, and then deconstructs the prejudice of racism and the uni- ethnicity-based nationalism. Hence, this work may contribute to one of the earliest efforts to tackle this issue.