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臺灣期刊論文索引

摘要

本篇出處 民俗曲藝 172 2011.06[民100.06] 頁161-203
篇名 民初儒學的宗教化:段正元與道德學社的個案研究
作者 范純武
中文摘要   對於民國初年之國學運動、孔教運動的研究多半偏重在知識階層的探討與思想史脈絡上的分析;做為「神怪先生的國學」這樣的分類卻彷彿一直不存在於歷史。段正元的道德學社可說是民初儒學宗教化的翹楚。酒井忠夫教授注意到民國初年新興宗教運動和主張道德的復振有密切的關係。段正元 (1864–1940),這位來自於四川威遠的道德改良主義者,在 1912年春在成都創辦了人倫道德會,以提倡倫理、扶持人道為宗旨。會中供奉孔子牌位,並公開講解三綱、五倫和八德。 1916年北京道德學社成立,其宗旨為即闡揚孔子大道,實行人道貞義,提倡世界大同,該學社以王聘卿為社長、段正元為社師、雷壽榮為總幹事,其後各地相繼成立分社。段正元的言說受到 1920~40年代軍政界與社會群眾廣泛的接受。   對於段正元與道德學社的歷史與活動情況,現有的討論明顯不足;本論文企圖重構段正元與道德學社的歷史;並論及道德學社的組織規章與儀軌、教義與思想;最後並討論段正元參與 1934年「闡揚孔子大同真義,祈禱世界和平大會」的歷史意義。道德學社是一個擅長透過印刷媒介其思想的宗教團體,段正元的臨壇演講,是以各種編輯成書的方式來傳播。而不強調扶乩,以更貼近民眾道德思維,以及對《大學》與《易經》的創見與改造。這種頗具新意的儒學詮釋做法,在民初眾多的救世團體中可說是獨樹一幟。清末民初是整個知識體系變化相當劇烈的時期,在民初「國故」之學既成的論述外,儒學宗教化,是否可能是另一種理解近世中國儒家發展的脈絡?對段正元和道德學社的討論可能會是其中一個起點。
英文摘要   The turbulent political and social setting at the end of Qing dynasty and the beginning of the Republican era provided religion an opportunity for further development. Early Republican China can be viewed as another peak for religious development, in which the most prominent phenomenon is the extreme prosperity of redemptive societies. Whether in terms of the number of groups, the social power that each group had, or the effects they exerted on the society, the importance of these religious movements was unprecedented in Chinese religious history. However, this aspect has long been neglected by historians, with today's historiography too often overemphasizing new cultural history, history of mentalities, etc., with the study of popular religions remaining a minor stream within the vast flow of historical and social studies. This demands further exploration. Sakai Tadao has noted the intimate relation between the flourishing religious movements at the beginning of Republican China and the backlash of moralism, especially the promotion of the traditional moral codes. This study shows how Duan Zhengyuan (1864-1940), a moral reformist from Wenyuan County (Sichuan), founded the Renlun daodehui (Society of Ethics and Morality), whose creed was to promote moral codes and maintain humanism. In 1916, the Daode xueshe (Moral Studies Society) was founded in Beijing. The creeds of this society were to promote Confucian philosophy, practice humanism, promote world equality, and ensure world peace. These goals were widely accepted by the military, political, and social spheres. Moreover, the Wanguo daodedui (Universal Morality Society), founded in 1918, also worked on social didacticism, free educational institutions, etc., gaining the support of the people in northern China. This essay intends to further explore these organizations and to tease out their creeds, practices, and implications, using discussions on Duan Zhengyuan and the Daode xueshe as a starting point to better understand the historical development of Confucianism in modern China.