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摘要

本篇出處 玄奘佛學研究 16 2011.09[民100.09] 頁161-196
篇名 論安貝卡主義、印度人權革命與佛教復興--一個全球倫理的觀點
作者 游祥洲
中文摘要   安貝卡是近代印度的「人權革命之父」。安貝卡深受法國大革命以及美國獨立革命的影響,對於印度的種姓制度以及這個制度下受到其它種姓打壓的「賤民」人權,有其深層的批判。安貝卡的文化思維與行動策略,通稱為「安貝卡主義」(Ambedkarism)。 相對於「安貝卡主義」,最近幾年另外一股來自前賤民族群的「那克薩主義」(Naxalism)及其武裝革命行動,已快速發展成印度國內安全的最大威脅。印度的人權革命又回到了1956 年安貝卡的原點:「佛陀或馬克思?」 在二十一世紀的今天,印度的人權議題,顯然已經不是一個簡單的區域性或國內性的議題而已。尤其是當全球倫理(Global Ethic)的建構已經成為文化全球化的主要議題之一,印度的人權議題更應該放在全球倫理的平台上來重新檢視。 本文論述主軸,包括:安貝卡主義的四個判準、安貝卡的抉擇:佛教或共產主義?「後安貝卡時代」的賤民解放運動、「安貝卡主義」與「那克薩主義」(Naxalism)的消長、安貝卡主義未來所面對的十個課題以及安貝卡主義與當代入世佛教的合流。
英文摘要   Dr. Babasaheb Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar(1891-1956 A.D.)was the leader for the human right movement of Indian Dalit people in the 20th century. His strategy of cultural innovation and political action to release the Dalit people from the suppressions of over three thousand years caste system were called “Ambedkarism”. Fundamentally, “Ambedkarism” is based on Buddhism and the ideal of French revolution. Four criteria were highly emphasized. Dr. Ambedkar himself took three steps to actualize his goal. In 1927, he burned the “Manu script” in which the caste system was formed. In 1947, the discrimination on “Untouchables” was formally removed from India constitution. And finally in 1956, he leaded more than three million Dalit people to convert to Buddhism. By doing so, the human right movement and Buddhist revival in India become one. But Dr. Ambedkar died in 1956. After that, the Naxalism of radical violence oriented Maoist started in 1967 in India. It has become one of the biggest threats to India’s national security in the past few years. In 1956, Dr. Ambedkar was in question whether he should follow Buddhism or Communism? Now India has come to the same point again: Peace or violence? The human right situation in India should not be treated as a regional case. If the conflicts are not properly resolved, India would become a big bomb in Asia. Global Ethic is an important issue in this new century. By seeing the Human right crisis in India, people around the world should take more positive action to help.