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摘要

本篇出處 民俗曲藝 173 2011.09[民100.09] 頁59-99
篇名 先天道的尊孔崇道:香港道德會福慶堂、善慶洞的源流和變遷
作者 游子安 ; 危丁明
中文摘要   十九世紀末至二十世紀初,有多所道堂在香港創立,包括純陽仙院、從善堂、萬佛堂、藏霞精舍、黃大仙祠等。這些壇堂各有道脈,在數量上言,當以先天道道堂為顯著。其中香港道德會福慶堂,道脈源自南海紫洞善慶堂,建於 1924年,正值先天道在香港建堂的「高峰期」。清末以來,尊孔人士在香港建立多個團體,包括孔聖會、中華聖教總會、三教總學會、孔教學院、嗇色園等,而香港道德會福慶堂則是一個宣揚先天道兼尊孔的團體。香港道德會「承載」了民初尊孔運動的內容,與之同時的廣東道德會、澳門道德會後來無以為繼,更突顯福慶堂在尊孔團體延續上的重要。同樣地,善慶一脈是先天道派早年主要的一支,道堂遍及省禪港澳,然而省禪澳的成德堂、成慶堂、綿慶堂現已不存,福慶堂及其支洞善慶洞仍薪火相續。本文分四部分:第一部分略述先天道進入廣東的經過及發展;第二部分,聚焦於先天道善慶道脈在廣東商業重鎮佛山的創立和發展經過,探討其在進入城市後的基本變化,善慶一脈,早期更以着重扶乩為特點;第三部分從香港的特殊政治及文化地位出發,以時代為經緯,着重分析二十世紀初的尊孔運動中,在現代化的強大的文化衝擊下,所產生的尊孔與崇道的獨特變奏;第四部分則從香港道德會福慶堂本身的歷史說明,在適應社會的發展過程中,其中一個傳統道堂在組織形式和管理方式方面發生的種種變化。
英文摘要   Numerous Daoist halls (daotang) were founded in Hong Kong between the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including the Chunyang xianyuan, Congshan tang, Wanfo tang, Cangxia jingshe, and Wong Tai Sin Temple, with most of these belonging to the Xiantiandao. The Fuqing tang of the Hong Kong Ethics Society, for instance, originated from the Zidong shanqing tang in Nanhai, and was established in Hong Kong in 1924 during the heyday of the Xiantiandao. An organization that worshipped both the Xiantiandao and Confucianism, the Hong Kong Ethics Society might not sound unique given the Confucian movements of the early Republican era. However, as the Guangdong Ethics Society and Macau Ethics Society became defunct, the Hong Kong Ethics Society became all the more important. Similarly, the Shanqing branch of the Xiantiandao also used to flourish, but as its Shanqing associations in Guangzhou, Foshan and Macau declined one after the other, the Fuqing tang and its branch, the Shanqing dong, still managed to operate in Hong Kong. This paper is divided into four parts. The first part explores how the Xiantiandao penetrated into and flourished in Guangdong. The second chooses Foshan as an example of the development of Xiantiandao in an urban context, and points out that “spirit-writing” was one of the main features of Shanqing branch. The third discusses the unique conditions of Hong Kong that the Xiantiandao could exploit in its favor. The fourth uses the Fuqing tang of the Hong Kong Ethics Society as a case to explore the changes in the organization and administration of a Daoist association vis-à-vis the dynamics of modernity.