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臺灣期刊論文索引

摘要

本篇出處 民俗曲藝 174 2011.12[民100.12] 頁103-184
篇名 Spirit-writing Halls and the Development of Local Communities: A Case Study of Puli (Nantou County)
作者 康豹
中文摘要   本文以鸞堂為研究對象,採取區域研究的範疇,針對埔里地區曾經有扶鸞降筆記錄的鸞堂進行微觀研究。透過本研究,希望能夠對於地方菁英參與各鸞堂的方式與動機、各鸞堂的內部組織及信徒角色之差異性、各鸞堂之異同與網絡關係,以及各鸞堂與其他地方廟宇的互動,達成更清楚的了解,藉此凸顯鸞堂在地方社會發展所扮演的重要角色。所探討的問題包括各鸞堂的歷史沿革及分佈情形、地方菁英參與鸞務的動機與方式、鸞堂內部組織及信徒角色之差異性、扶乩及其他儀式與慶典之特徵等。 研究工作主要的步驟是先找尋相關檔案文獻及既有研究成果,收集並比對各鸞堂的出版品、主要參與者或其後代的口碑,逐步整理出各鸞堂的發展與變遷歷程,以便進一步釐清時代變遷的衝擊下,各鸞堂的因應方式有何異同。  本研究的另外一種重要的方法是口述訪問。透過田野調查及口述訪問,注意人與地的關係(探討聚落居民的族群屬性與職業分佈)、信徒與鸞堂的關係(統計信徒、鸞生的人數、身份、性別、年齡)、鸞堂與鸞堂的關係(建堂先後、主祀及分香、建堂及練乩時的協助、友堂重要活動的參與、跨鸞堂的組織建立)、鸞堂與地方重要活動的關係(如何透過參與友堂的活動、地方大型的活動來凸顯自己的角色或建立自己的聲望)。就信徒角色而言,參與鸞堂活動的鸞生,其動機及興趣各有不同,扮演的角色也有差異,還有女性鸞生的角色與功能亦值得關注。透過較詳密的口述訪問,可以了解每位信徒的屬性差異,經過統計、分析、比較,更能了解鸞堂之間異同之處。
英文摘要   In recent years, a growing number of scholars have begun to undertake path-breaking research projects on the development of communal religious traditions. However, such scholarship has tended to center on temple cults, largely ignoring the question of how modern Chinese social history was also shaped by voluntary religious associations that practiced spirit-writing. The goal of this paper is to highlight the social aspects of spirit-writing groups, particularly “phoenix halls” located in the town of Puli (Nantou County, central Taiwan). In Puli, as well as many other parts of Taiwan, phoenix halls are home to highly diverse communities of men and women committed to the pursuit of self-cultivation, moral edification, and social activism. Their initiated members (literally “disciples of the phoenix”) tend to sub-divide into many different groups, and people belonging to one group may not necessarily play an active role in another group’s activities. In general, about a dozen or even fewer male initiates are in charge of a hall’s spirit-writing rituals. However, dozens of other initiates devote themselves to performing rites for worshipping a hall’s deities, while others manage the hall’s finances and communal activities, including philanthropy, pilgrimages, and participation in local festivals. The historical and ethnographic data obtained during our research indicates that the rapid growth of Puli’s phoenix halls has in large part resulted from the efforts of local elites, including those who manage these sacred sites and those who perform as wielders during their rites. In addition, it is clear that phoenix halls can only thrive by utilizing extensive networks of connections with other sacred sites, including both local temples and other phoenix halls. Phoenix halls continue to impact Puli’s religious traditions today, both through their rituals and their engagement with local networks of power, while their educational and philanthropic activities have also made an impact on communal life. One might even be so bold as to say that some halls have developed according to patterns similar to those of major public temples.