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臺灣期刊論文索引

摘要

本篇出處 歷史人類學學刊 2:1 民93.04 頁1-32
篇名 從「倮匪」到「拉祜族」--邊疆化過程中的族群認同
作者 馬健雄
中文摘要   明清以來,隨著大量內地人口移入雲南並滲透到遠離交通線的邊遠地區,移民與土著群體在資源上的競爭引發了一系列的族群衝突。其中,部分移民精英在邊疆社會中扮演了非常積極的角色,他們發動宗教運動將倮黑動員組織起來,與清政府進行對抗。這一對抗的過程,還緊密聯繫著清王朝18至20世紀的邊疆政策的變化。在嘉慶時期,清王朝將倮黑視為區隔緬甸的藩籬,對反抗的倮黑等群體實行驅逐政策;在光緒時期,隨著緬甸的殖民地化,倮黑被視為現代國家邊疆上的跨境族群。在這一邊疆化過程中,族群內部的社會機制和歷史記憶也進一步推動了民族的認同過程,並最後固定在國家民族識別體系中成為拉祜族。這是一個移民精英、國家和地方群體共同塑造、強化了拉祜的族群認同的歷史過程。
英文摘要   The gradual integration of Yunnan into the empire in the Ming and Qing was in large part the result of substantial immigration by Han into former border areas. Increasing competition over local resources led to frequent conflict between Han immigrants and indigenous peoples. Some Han immigrant elites played a role in organizing the indigenous Luohei in religious movements that challenged the Qing government. This development was linked to changing Qing policies on the frontier. In the early nineteenth century, the Qing saw the Luohei as a buffer between Chinese territory and the domains of Burmese chiefs, and sought to drive any rebellious Luohei further into Burma. In the later nineteenth century, as Burma came increasingly under British colonial control, the Luohei came to be seen as an ethnic group who inhabited a zone that spanned the fixed territorial borders of a modern state. In the process of constructing the border, the social institutions and historical memory of the Luohei also underwent changes, leading to a higher degree of ethnic identification. Eventually this identity was confirmed by the PRC's ethnic minority system, which recognized the Luohei, now known as the Lahu, as a national minority. The strengthening of Lahu ethnic identity was thus the product of immigrant elites and the state, as well as the Lahu themselves.