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摘要

本篇出處 中華心理學刊 53:3 2011.09[民100.09] 頁255-273
篇名 「人觀」拼圖 : 它的概念架構、注意偏向與發展趨勢
作者 王震武 ; 林烘煜 ; 曹峰銘 ; 林文瑛
中文摘要   從演化的角度來看,營社群生活的人類,應有其有利於生存的看人方式。本文試圖為建基於演化的基礎人觀及其後續發展做拼圖。研究者推想,人觀的概念架構應以能力與德性為主軸,由此而有的能力觀與德性觀之主要內容為此二者的原態與可塑性,尤以後者為重點。此一概念架構會導致人以親和性、能力及此二者的可塑性為注意的焦點。然而,發展會讓人加強對能力的重視,隨著經驗的增長,人觀也會分化,衍生出針對不同情境的特殊人觀,這些特殊人觀也會引導人的注意,使之在不同的情境下有不同的注意偏向。針對此一人觀拼圖,本文以兩個研究去加以檢驗。利用記憶反映注意的原理,研究一讓小二、小五、高中及大學的參與者聽或讀一個假想的故事,然後測他們對故事中各類訊息的記憶,結果顯示,人看人時確實以親和性及能力為主要焦點,也顯示,隨著年齡的增長,對能力的重視會逐漸凌駕於親和性之上,而演化可能讓我們預設能力與親和性是不可塑的特質。研究二讓四個年齡層的參與者用語言文字描述某個好朋友,結果顯示,「看好朋友」時的特殊人觀與一般人觀所導致的注意偏向不盡相同,德性也成了注意偏向的焦點。更重要的是,發展使得這種特殊人觀隨年齡而轉移,有了迥然不同的面貌。
英文摘要   Humans are by nature social creatures. In evolutionary terms, humans perceive others in ways that potentially facilitate social success. By combining various theories and findings, this article provides a rationale for a new conceptual framework of person perception, which predicts two basic dimensions--competence and morality--along a dimension plasticity concept. Based on this framework, human perception links discriminatory attention to others’ competence, warmth, and the plasticity of these two features. On one hand, competence gradually accentuates with age. On the other hand, the accumulation of experience dictates how person perception varies across different social situations as well as differentiates into various person perceptions. Two studies were designed to test this jigsaw model of person perception. Participants in Study I were provided with behavior and trait information about a target person. A memory test was utilized as an attention index to determine whether differences of attention along the manipulated trait dimensions would be subsequently observed among second-graders (N = 76), fifth-graders (N = 84), high-school students (N = 90), and college students (N = 89), when participants recalled the information provided. Results supported the prediction that people mainly focus on competence and warmth dimensions, with the former surpassing the latter with age. The results also suggested that children might presuppose that competence and warmth remain unchanged during the early developmental stage. Study II utilized a Twenty Statement Test to explore whether people were attentive to different dimensions when they see their best friend, compared to when they encounter non-specific others. We asked the participants from second-grade (N = 77), fifth-grade (N = 69), high school (N = 86), and college (N = 85), to verbally describe their best friend (second-graders), or use twenty sentences to write down their impression of their best friend (elder groups). Results indicated that people focus their attention on their best friend in a different way than they do for general others. Finally, the weight of morality and personality perceived in friends tends to increase with age.