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摘要

本篇出處 中華心理衛生學刊 26:2 2013.06[民102.06] 頁249-278
篇名 原住民與漢人族群的災變因應與心理適應關係探討:以莫拉克風災為例
作者 陳亭君 ; 林耀盛 ; 許文耀
中文摘要   研究目的:世界各地重大災害頻仍,災後的心理救援工作受到重視,但對不同族群的創傷後心理反應了解甚少。本文從文化心理角度探討原住民與漢人族群在莫拉克風災後因應與適應間之關係及差異情形。研究方法:116名漢人(男、女各58名)、116名原住民(男、女各58名)在風災後3-4個月,由受訓練志工進行一對一相關問卷調查,測量災後的因應方式、創傷後壓力、憂鬱,以及生活滿意度。研究結果:原住民傾向使用「變己適應」因應型態,目的在減緩負向感受,有效的變己型因應與災後正向心理適應有關;漢人傾向使用「變外適應」因應型態,目的在回復災難前的生活狀況,僅幽默與災後正向心理適應有關,且逃避與情緒因應將帶來負面的心理結果。整體而言,原住民災後較漢人有較低的憂鬱情緒,隱含著原住民文化以及過去的生活處遇增加其面對災難時的復原力。研究結論:1.原住民與漢人族群「變己適應」與「變外適應」,顯示因應資源的保存或流失;2.宗教在後創傷適應存在的靈性力量機制,待未來進一步探討。
英文摘要   Purpose: Major disasters occur frequently around the world. How to provide psychological reconstruction programs after a disaster is a topic in need of investigation. However, only a few studies have investigated the post-trauma psychological reactions of ethnic minorities. This study explores the differences between coping styles and adaptation strategies after the typhoon Morakot disaster from aboriginal and Han cultural perspectives. Methods: A total of 116 Han (58 males and 58 females) and 116 aboriginals (58 males and 58 females) after age balances controlled were surveyed one-on-one by trained volunteers 3 to 4 months after typhoon Morakot to assess their coping style, PTSD, depression, and life satisfaction by well-constructed scales. Results: Aboriginals tended to use a "self-becoming" coping style to alleviate their negative feelings. Effective self-becoming coping was related to positive adaptation. Han tended to use an "external-change" coping style to try to recover their life as before the disaster. Only humor was related to positive adaptation. Avoidance and emotional coping were related to negative adaptation for the Han. Aboriginals after the disaster had fewer depression reactions than Han, implying that the cultural archetype and past negative life experiences may be a protective factor for aboriginals. It may activate their resilience and help them to heal after the disaster. Conclusions: The "self-becoming" of the aboriginals and the "external-change" of the Han represent transformative resources reserved and lost respectively during the disaster. Second, mechanisms of spirituality that coexist with posttraumatic adaptation require further exploration in future research.