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臺灣期刊論文索引

摘要

本篇出處 臺灣社會研究季刊 93 2013.12[民102.12] 頁1-47
篇名 沒有唐山媽?拓墾時期臺灣原漢通婚之研究
作者 黃樹仁
中文摘要   原漢通婚到底普及至何程度,是臺灣社會史上重要但少被研究的議題。本文指出,臺灣開發史上確有原漢通婚,但只有少數漢人男性得與原住民女性通婚。理由有六。首先,史料僅記載拓墾初期漢人男多於女,男性婚配困難,以及某些原漢通婚,但從未同時記載原漢大量通婚。離臺返鄉、婚後來臺、返鄉結婚及來回兩岸等可能才是初期移民的普遍選擇。其次,臺灣漢人男多於女的記載僅出現在荷領至清初之間。乾隆初期以後不復有此等記載。原因是雍正乾隆朝已屢屢開放搬眷入臺。男多於女現象在乾隆朝已經緩解。再其次,臺灣原住民人口偏少,可婚配女性遠少於突然大量湧入的漢人男性。多數漢人男性不可能有機會與原住民女性婚配。第四,原住民部落有其族群意識與團結。不可能允許原住民女性多數與漢人通婚而導致原住民滅族的慘劇。漢人之族群歧視也使雙方多數人不願通婚。清朝法律更長期禁止原漢通婚。第五,日治時期多數平埔部落仍然健在。顯示其女性過去並未大批嫁與漢人而剝奪本族男性結婚繁衍的機會。日治時期戶籍記載也顯示原漢通婚僅佔平埔族女性婚姻之少數。第六.晚近基因研究顯示,原住民基因佔臺灣漢人基因平均比例很低。顯示歷史上原漢通婚佔漢人婚姻比例不高。我們推論,臺灣漢人家族在臺歷代母系祖先中,確實可能包含原住民,但原住民女性並非漢人在臺母系祖先的多數。
英文摘要   The scope of intermarriage between Han and indigene during the settlement era is a significant but understudied issue in Taiwanese social history. This paper argues that intermarriage did occur, but involved only a tiny minority of Han men. First, historical sources reported only Han men's outnumbering women and difficulty in spouse-finding, and certain cases of intermarriage, but not massive intermarriage. Historical accounts indicated that most Han men went back to mainland for marriage. Second, the reports of Han men outnumbering women appeared only no later than early Qing era. Spouses were intermittently permitted into Taiwan since later Yon-Zhung period and the shortage of Han women had been alleviated since then. Third, the rapid and massive immigration of Han to Taiwan during Qing means that Han vastly outnumbered indigene in a few decades, and there were simply not enough indigenous women to meet the demand of Han men for wives. Most Han men had had to find spouse back in mainland after all. Fourth, with their tribal consciousness and solidarity, indigenes were unlikely to allow their women to marry Hans in massive scope that would lead to the extinction of their tribes. Ethnic discrimination by Hans also discouraged intermarriage. And Qing laws in fact prohibited intermarriage. Fifth, the very survival of most plain indigenous tribes up to Japanese colonial era indicated that their women hadn't married Hans in massive scope and deprived their own men of marriage in the past. Sixth, recent genetic studies indeed find that the average proportion of indigenous genes in Taiwanese is quite moderate, indicating only limited scope of intermarriage in the past. We conclude that indigenous grandmothers do not constitute the majority of female ancestors of current Taiwanese.