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摘要

本篇出處 歷史人類學學刊 12:1 2014.04[民103.04] 頁73-110
篇名 祭祀空間與地域社會--雷州雷祖祠及其周邊鄉村的靈物、神廟與祠堂
作者 賀喜
中文摘要   雷祖陳文玉在雷州一方面是重要的地方神明,另一方面也被周圍的陳氏鄉村認作祖先。陳文玉的歷史與傳說是一個可以為陳姓以及非陳姓鄉村所運用的共有的文化與象徵資源。白院雷祖祠附近的四村以及英山村都以此為基礎建立起村落聯盟。但是,二者卻發展出了針鋒相對的故事,以及截然不同的合族方式。四村的陳姓人主持一年一度的「雷祖巡城」儀式,從系譜結構以及儀式組織來看,這個跨村際的同姓聯盟相對穩定與固定。從清代中期開始,英山村陳姓人宣稱英山是雷祖誕降處,逐漸建立起有別於四村範圍的更加廣闊的同姓聯盟。但是,在這些鄉村內部,祭祀的核心單位是「境」,每一個境的範圍與具體的一尊神建立關係,當地人稱之為「地頭」。「地頭」包括了白馬將軍、鄔蛇大王等多種神明。規模小的村子只有一個境,而大村則可能是幾個境的聯合。鄉村內部空間感以及身份的確定與調適往往體現於地頭神的巡遊以及祭祀中。相對於四村以及英山,麻扶村是雜姓村。麻扶村的村民沒有宣稱雷祖是祖先,但由於麻扶在水利體系上的重要位置,這裡是雷祖巡城的必經之地。不僅如此,相對其他村落而言,麻扶村地頭神的權威需要更高一級的神明-雷祖的承認。五月賽端陽的儀式集中地體現這樣的主從關係。本文通過描述與比較這六個鄉村的祭祀地點、系譜、口述故事以及儀式活動,在地方社會的脈絡中理解和討論它們在敘事結構上相同和相異的部份,以期展示出村落中空間觀念的流動性與多重性,進而討論鄉村、宗族、血緣與地緣等理解傳統中國鄉村社會的基本概念。
英文摘要   The Thunder God, also known as Chen Wenyu, is an important deity in Leizhou. Local people of the Chen surname also consider him to be their ancestor. The tradition of Chen Wenyu is thus a story of how Chen and non-Chen villages use the same shared culture and symbolic resources differently. Chen's principal temple is the Thunder God Temple (Leizu ci) at Baiyuan, which is maintained by people of the Chen surname in four surrounding villages. They are responsible for the annual parade that carries the statues of the god to Leizhou city, an activity which can be seen as marking the territorial space that came under the purview of people of the Chen surname in the historical past. The parade also goes through Mafu village, whose residents were historically the tenants of the Chen. In addition, the Thunder God is also celebrated at another hall in Yingshan village, which serves as the centre of another alliance of Chen surname people, drawn from a much wider area than the alliance of villages at Baiyuan. This paper examines the geographical layout of these villages and shows that each village maintains its own protective deities, and carries out a separate set of local rituals within its own village space aside from the Thunder God tradition. Sacrificial activities, therefore, mark out for multiple ritual spaces. Within these multiple ritual spaces, ritual markers denote both the extent of the village, and the engagement of the village in wider alliances.