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摘要

本篇出處 教育心理學報 45:4 2014.06[民103.06] 頁497-515
篇名 不同範例與解題組合對初學者在學習上的影響
作者 黃一泓 ; 虞翔
中文摘要   本研究以認知負荷理論爲基礎,探討不同的範例與解題組合對初學者的認知負荷及學習成效之影響。本研究以72位商業管理類大學新生爲研究對象,以微積分課程中探討最佳化問題爲教學內容,採取前後測控制的真實驗設計,學習者在隨機分組後經過「同時呈現的範例與解題」、「範例-解題配對」,以及「解題-範例配對」三種學習過程,再進行近遷移及遠遷移的學習成效測試,並在學習過程中採用難度評分的自評量表收集認知負荷數據。實驗結果說明,「同時呈現的範例與解題」對初學者的認知負荷最低、「範例-解題配對」其次,而「解題-範例配對」最高。而「同時呈現的範例與解題」與「範例-解題配對」在學習成效的影響並無顯著差異,但上述兩條件組則顯著優於「解題-範例配對」。另外,不同的範例解題組合在遠遷移測試的表現則無顯著差異。
英文摘要   This study investigated the effectiveness of different combinations of examples and problems, including simultaneous examples and problems, example-problem pairs, and problem-example pairs on novices' learning of optimization problems tasks in a calculus curriculum. Participants were college freshmen who major in business and management. Pretest-posttest control group design was used in this study. After pretest, learners were randomly assigned to three learning conditions Difficulty rating scale was measured in the learning phase when learning time was fixed. Results showed that in cognitive load measurement, learning from examples and problems simultaneously was more effective and efficient than example-problem pairs and problem-example pairs conditions. In posttest, there was no significant difference in effectiveness between learning from examples and problems simultaneously example-problem pairs conditions; however, they were both more effective than the problem-example pairs condition. Performance in far transfer tests had the same outcome as in near transfer tests among the three conditions. In addition, difficulty rating scale was sensitive to the measurement of cognitive load when learning time was fixed.