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摘要

本篇出處 教育實踐與研究 27:1 2014.06[民103.06] 頁121-143
篇名 教育與社會秩序:解析升學主義
作者 顏學誠
中文摘要   本文探討教育在中國文明所扮演的功能。文明是一種由陌生人所組成的大規模複雜社會,如何在陌生人之間建立起穩定的互動是必須解決的問題。本文指出先秦諸子已意識到這種問題,並提出尚賢的階梯架構作為建立文明秩序的基礎。透過將人擺放在高低不同的階梯位置,提供陌生人之間分配權力與財富的框架。相對於印度種姓與歐洲封建社會,尚賢強調人可透過自身的努力而改變階梯位置。教育的重要在於提供了評價階梯位置的標準以及資源分配的準則,並指導與鼓勵人們攀爬階梯。尚賢的階梯架構強調社會流動性,但允許下層階級翻身,也意味著當權者的地位可能下降。先秦諸子尚賢的理念,不必然會被當權者所實踐。本文透過科舉制度,說明給予老百姓晉身的機會對君主權威所產生的助益,並指出順暢的階梯流動是帝國得以整合地方社會的重要手段。經過一千多年的薰陶,透過教育翻身成為中國文化的重要成分,也是現今升學主義的源頭。教育改革為解決升學主義所帶來之弊病,一方面試圖瓦解階梯式的評比,另一方面強調每個人皆有不可改變的內在本質,而教育之目的是要針對此本質適性揚才,並非建立起普同的評比來衡量學生的高低。然本文認為,教改當前所面臨的困境正在於人們仍希望透過教育來做為翻身的機制。
英文摘要   The article discusses two issues in Chinese education mobility: The emergence of the meritocracy ideal and its realization through the civil service examination. I propose that a theory of civilization contending a complex society must transcend the concentric model of kinship distance calculation in order to incorporate non-kin strangers into the enlarged social unit. The pre-Qin philosophers saw the problem when they argued against guanxi relationalism for it is ill-suited for organizing a complex society filled with strangers. In its stead, they proposed a ladder structure whereby strangers could be comparatively evaluated based on absolute standards and that one's position on the ladder should be the basis for the distribution of political power and material wealth. However, the upward mobility assumed in meritocracy was a threat to the privileged position of the dominant class. I argue the threat was transformed into an asset to the Chinese emperors through the civil service examination. By recruiting commoners to supplant the old guards in the court, the examination consolidated the power of the ruler at the expense of the reigning bureaucrats. Moreover, by encouraging commoners to compete in the examination, it also provided a low-cost means for the -integration of local societies. Contrary to the view that education mobility is a façade to disguise class reproduction, I argue it was an integral part of the Chinese political system which shaped the Chinese understanding of education.