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摘要

本篇出處 東吳歷史學報 31 2014.06[民103.06] 頁85-112
篇名 清代閩北商業型與農業型客民的土著化過程
作者 陳啟鐘
中文摘要   本文以清代閩北商業型和農業型客民為例,從財富累積、功名取得、公共事務參與等社會地位提升和宗族組織建立,具體比較兩者在土著化過程中的差異性。透過實例可以發現,雖然兩者運用的手段大致相同,但在完成的成效、速度、規模和完整性上,前者皆比後者更有優勢和能力。而造成差異性的前提,即是財富的多寡,因為擁有足夠的經濟條件,才能進一步完善其他事項。在這些手段中,財富是基礎,功名是必備條件,宗族組織起著延續作用,公益則有助於名聲。因此,清代閩北客民雖然一般可以藉由入籍應試而土著化,但若要讓此過程更為順利、快速,並在之後有所發展,就必須先擁有財富、取得功名,行有餘力時,再進行宗族組織的建設,並尋找機會參與公共事務,而此四項的重要性,依次為財富、功名、宗族組織和公共事務。
英文摘要   In this article, the author exemplifies business and farming immigrants in north Fujian province in Qing dynasty to illustrate the discrepancy in their indigenizing process from the aspects of wealth accumulation, fame acquirement, public affairs participation, and the establishment of clan organization. From specific cases, it was found that business immigrants had more advantages and were more capable of accomplishing these goals than farming immigrants in terms of speed, scale, and integrity. The key factor in the above discrepancy was the amount of the wealth, because proper economic conditions were often required to perfect other factors. The author concludes that wealth was the foundation of the indigenization; fame was the necessary qualification; clan organization could further boost the process; and public affairs participation would in turn help fame acquirement. Therefore, although immigrants could become indigenized by naturalization or taking exams, they often needed to possess wealth and fame first to speed up the process. Afterwards, they would help to establish their clan organization, and seek for opportunities to participate in public affairs. In summary, the priority of conditions in the indigenization process, was in this order-wealth, fame, clan organization, and then public affairs participation.