國家圖書館 期刊文獻資訊網

連結國家圖書館 連結期刊文獻資訊網

臺灣期刊論文索引

摘要

本篇出處 臺灣史研究 22:2 2015.06[民104.06] 頁111-150
篇名 清乾隆年間霧里薛溪與秀朗溪上游土地關係暨「山稅銀」性質商榷
作者 曾獻緯 ; 洪麗完
中文摘要   本文討論清代乾隆中葉漢人、熟番(雷朗社)移墾霧里薛溪(今景美溪)與 秀朗溪(淡水河上游;今新店溪)上游,及其與生番(今泰雅族;清代稱「馬來 番」;日治時期稱「屈尺群/番」)的互動等課題。主要以史料、古文書、地圖為 基礎,輔以相關調查與田野訪談等,一方面分析國家力量甚少介入的邊陲地帶, 移民如何在自立的狀況下,建立新生活空間;一方面考察在「隘墾」活動中,漢 人、熟番與生番形成的緊張關係,並釐清番界附近普遍存在的「山稅銀」性質。 其指出﹕設隘「防番」為移民開啟合法通往界外山林埔地的大門;從乾隆到道光 年間,移民不斷透過「彌補隘糧」的模式,擴張拓墾範圍。原在秀朗溪中游活動 的雷朗社因此得以擴張、延伸及界外霧里薛溪與秀朗溪上游。而依附於熟番守隘 名義的漢佃,則不斷向雷朗社租贌、買賣耕地,從而建立漢人在沿山地帶的聚落。 其次,霧里薛溪與秀朗溪上游的土地常需納付山稅銀。過去學者及日治時期 的相關調查,均指山稅銀具有「番大租」性質。本文發現在生、熟番部落共有山 林埔地的「山稅銀」,相較於臺灣中南部沿山邊區的安撫番租(番食租),如「亢 五租」(總收成的5%)、「阿里山番租」(總收成的10%),以及比例不定的「撫番 租」(總收成的5-10%),山稅銀顯然偏低(8分至4錢不等);既非土地租佃關係而 產生的「番大租」,也無法如同「番食租」發揮安撫作用(維持雙方某種「穩定」 的社會關係)。由北臺(濁水溪以北)沿山邊區盛行武力隘墾制,中南部以撫番租 交換土地,說明其性質與安撫番租有所不同。而造成移民在濁水溪南、北不同的 開墾模式,又涉及當地原住民的社會文化差異。
英文摘要   This study explores the interaction among Han people, "Shufan" (i.e., Reilang "she") and "Shenfan" (i.e., Malaifan, also called Mstranan during the Japanese colonial period and named Atalya today) around Wulixue River (i.e., Jingmei River) and the upstream of Xiulang River (i.e., Xindian River). Utilizing historical data, land contracts, maps and field work, this study analyzes how immigrants settled in the new environment and the relations between Hans, "Shufan" and "Shenfan" in borderland Taiwan. The nature of "Shan shui yin" is also examined. While focusing on the function of "Ai" (military community, "she ai fang fan"), this paper describes how "Aiken" (land reclamation by military community) offered a legitimate excuse for Hans and "Shufan" outside the boundary to move into and exploit the territory of "Shenfan". This study also shows that immigrants paid tax, "Shan shui yin", to both "Shenfan" and "Shufan" who owned the hillside land and shared its use with new settlers until early Japanese rule. Compared with "An fu fan zu" (i.e., Fan "shi zu") paid by immigrants in the mountain areas of central and southern Taiwan including "Alishan fan zu" (10% of total harvest), "Kang wu zu" (5% of total harvest), "Fu fan zu" (5-10% of total harvest), and the rate of "Shan shui yin" was relatively low. This study challenges the prevailing conception that "Shan shui yin" was the same as "Fan da zu", rental payment from migrant tenants to native landlords for use of land. Neither was "Shan shui yin" equivalent to "Fan shi zu", a recompense paid by immigrants to natives for maintaining a stable social relationship. Furthermore, land reclamation approaches adopted by immigrants in the north and south of Zhuoshui River varied mainly because of socio-cultural differences among aboriginal tribes.