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摘要

本篇出處 國家發展研究 14:2 2015.06[民104.06] 頁1-21
篇名 日本近代政治思想中之民主與國族主義
作者 邵軒磊
中文摘要   「民主與國族主義」常被視為用以理解現代政治變遷與國家發展模式;然而上述概念在東亞世界歷史發展,具有相當特殊性。本文試圖以日本為例,討論日本現代化初期政治思想家,詮釋民主與國族主義之不同思維,列舉出數種理論模式。本文試圖闡述其主要特色為:其一、「東亞民主」實為學習西方思想之產物,其目的為加強「國族認同」,兩者具有共生關係。其二、東亞國族主義起因於救亡圖存。日本在近代化初期,一方面效法西洋民主,二方面亦恐懼甚至試圖排除西洋,因此日本政治思想家亦在「民主/國族」兩者觀念問之取捨。第三、另一個影響日本思潮之條件為中日關係,兩者呈現反差;足見,「束/西文明」與「中/日文明」之交互作用,亦體現在日本思想之中。本文試圖介紹並比較近現代初期之日本政治思想,提供學者研究東亞政治理論之切入點,以為當前發展研究究東亞思想之補遠。
英文摘要   Theories of democracy often use "democracy and nationalism" to understand modern political change and patterns of national development. However, in the historical development of East Asia, these ideas are quite unusual. This article discusses how Japanese political theorists in the early democratization period interpreted the concepts of democracy and nationalism, identifying several theoretical strains and showing how while nationalism and democracy developed at the same time in Japan, Japanese political thinkers had different interpretations of the relationship between the two concepts. This article attempts to elaborate on the main characteristics of Japanese interpretations of the relationship between democracy and nationalism. First, "East Asian democracy" is a product of studying Western thought. Its objective is strengthening national identity, implying a symbiotic relationship between democracy and nationalism. Second, East Asian nationalism originated from a struggle for national survival. While on one hand Japan imitated Western democracy, on the other hand it viewed the West with fear and even hostility. This paradox caused Japanese political theorists to waver between democracy and nationalism. Third, another factor which influenced Japanese thought was Sino- Japanese relations. The dialectical interaction of Eastern/Western civilization and of Chinese/Japanese civilization is evident in the focus of Japanese political thought. This study attempts to introduce and compare early-modern Japanese political thought in order to provide a new angle for research on East Asian political theory.