國家圖書館 期刊文獻資訊網

連結國家圖書館 連結期刊文獻資訊網

臺灣期刊論文索引

摘要

本篇出處 新史學 26:4 2015.12[民104.12] 頁127-183
篇名 何仙姑與七郎婆--廣東何氏宗族的女性祖先崇拜與歷史敘事
作者 廖小菁
中文摘要   廣東增城以「仙姑故里」聞名,相傳此地為「八仙」中唯一女神仙― ―「何仙姑」的出生地。增城境內專祀何仙姑的廟宇主要分布於何姓宗族聚居的單姓村落,其中聲名最著者為坐落於小樓鎮小樓村的「何仙姑家廟」。對於小樓何氏而言,「家廟」中供奉的神靈不僅是仙靈徵顯、澤被黎庶的女神「何仙姑菩薩」,更是瑞應其族的宗門之女,為本家遠代未出嫁外姓的祖姑。以仙姑同族後人自居的小樓何氏,除了擁有崇祀「何仙祖姑」的廟祀傳統,也存在祭祀另一位俗稱「七郎婆」的女性祖先――宗族始祖何七郎之妻辛氏夫人的慣俗。本文藉由探討小樓何氏的何仙姑與七郎婆崇拜傳統自晚清以迄當代的構建過程,試圖指出,環繞「姑婆」 (祖姑)與「太婆」 (祖妣)兩種女性祖先形象所形成的崇拜活動,實際上體現了兩套標誌社群身分的歷史敘事傳統在近代以來的匯合,同時也是小樓何氏在不同歷史情境下凝聚社群認同與更新我群邊界的文化策略。往昔諸多關注南中國鄉土社會性別議題的研究者認為,在父系繼嗣原則主宰下的宗族祭祀制度下,女性並不具有獨立的受祀地位。然而,本文透過分析小樓何氏的何仙祖姑與七郎太婆之祀,偕以珠三角地區其他何姓宗族社區相似的女性祖先崇拜模式之例,企圖說明,女性是汙染抑或蔭佑社區的力量、是在祭祀傳統中處於依傍或獨立的地位,主要取決於社區對於女性角色與象徵意義不斷更新的理解、創造與操作歷程。
英文摘要   Zengcheng 增城 , the “Immortal Maiden’s Native Place,” is the putative hometown of the goddess He Xiangu 何仙姑 (Immortal Maiden He), best known as the only female among the “Eight Immortals” (baxian八仙). The temples dedicated to He Xiangu mainly appear in diverse single-surname villages of the He lineages. The most celebrated of these temples is He Xiangu Jiamiao (Ancestral Temple Devoted to He Xiangu), located in the village Xiaolou小樓. He Xiangu is enshrined and offered sacrifices by the He lineage of Xiaolou 小樓何氏 , not only because she is considered “Bodhisattva He Xiangu” (He Xiangu Pusa 何仙姑菩薩 )—an efficacious female deity who blesses myriad people, but also because she is the lineage’s “Immortal Paternal Great-aunt He” (He Xian Zugu 何仙祖姑) who posthumously grants divine aid to subsequent generations of Hes. Besides the cult dedicated to He Xiangu, which contains both goddess and ancestress images, the Xiaolou Hes worship another female ancestor— Qilang Po 七郎婆 (Grandmother/Granny Qilang, wife of the lineage’s first ancestor, He Qilang 何七郎). An exploration of the way both cults have been shaped by the Xiaolou Hes from the late imperial period to the present day reveals that the ancestress worships centering on “(paternal) greataunt” and “grandmother” figures represent the convergence of two historical narratives appropriated by the Hes as a cultural strategy to consolidate and renew community identity in changing historical contexts. Furthermore, this article re-examines an argument that is often proposed by scholars focusing on gender and local society in south China. The generally accepted argument is that women were not qualified to be deified independently in the ancestral worship system because of their ambiguous position in the patrilineal descent line. However, an investigation into the cults dedicated to the Immortal Maiden/Paternal Great-aunt He and Grandmother Qilang, together with similar examples of ancestress worship practiced in other He lineages in the Pearl River Delta, reveals that women represent either polluting or deified symbolic powers, and are ritually placed either in subordinate or independent positions, depending on how a specific community interprets, creates, and manipulates the roles and symbolic meanings of women.