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摘要

本篇出處 日本語日本文學 43 2015.05[民104.05] 頁37-56
篇名 丁寧体否定形式「~ません」と「~ないです」の動向
作者 神作晋一
中文摘要   日文句末中的丁寧體否定形有「~ません」與「~ないです」兩種形式。形成時期是「~ません」>「~ないです」,但是在用法等方面感到有所不同之處,所以進行了這兩語的比較與檢討。在日本語學上,有句型的成立與發展之考察,還有語言資料庫 (Corpus)‧小說‧劇本及電視節目等等的共時性調查;從日本語教育的觀點來看有學習者的發話等分析。在分析的觀點上雖然有書面語及口頭語還有改正度等等,卻也是現在變化仍持續進行中的事象。本研究是關於「~ません」「~ないです」,基於上述之複數類型的動向上,調查了收音機節目及劇本。在劇本之中,「~ません」較多,而收音機節目裏則是「~ないです」較多。在前接語的部分,有動詞接「~ません」,イ形容詞及名詞接「~ないです」之傾向。在後接語的部分則是斷言或接續助詞等等接「~ません」,終助詞則是接「~ないです」較多。雖然隨著話者不同會有若干的相異之處,但是在語彙選擇的傾向上,也可以被視為是受到說話方式的態式所影響。還有,作為今後這個分野的研究使用收音機節目是有效的也一併記述。
英文摘要   There are 2 forms "-masen" and "-naidesu" in Japanese polite negative form. It appears "-masen" earlier and "-naidesu" is the back. But the difference is found in usage and these two words of comparison and consideration are performed. On Japanese linguistics, there is researches consideration which are formation and a change, investigate corpus, novel, the scenario and the TV program etc. Synchronic Linguistics. There is an analysis of learner's utterance from the angle of the Japanese-language education. By the view of the analys is, there are written language, spoken language and a formal degree. But it's the phenomenon which also continues changing present. In this research, a radio program and a scenario were investigated about "-masen" and "-naidesu", after being based on the trend of the plural genre like the above. It has a lot of "-masen" by a scenario and have a lot of "-naidesu" by a radio program. In front of the word, it is a tendency that "-naidesu" attaches to a verb, and "-naidesu" attach to i-form adjective and Noun. In back of the word, it is a tendency that declaring and a conjunctive particle attaches to "-masen" an ending particle attaches to "-naidesu" There is difference by the speaker for a short while. Influence by a style of the way of talking is also considered by the tendency of the choice of vocabulary.