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摘要

本篇出處 東吳法律學報 28:4 2017.04[民106.04] 頁129-163
篇名 網路時代之薦證廣告與其管制
作者 王明禮
中文摘要   隨著網際網路之普及與社群網路之興起,網路行銷(digital marketing)乃至社群行銷(social marketing)成為熱門的行銷手法,薦證廣告-特別是非由名人或專家代言之素人薦證廣告-似有越來越流行之趨勢。公平交易委員會於2013年底、2015年初與今(2017)年初三度修訂「公平交易委員會對於薦證廣告之規範說明」,以期讓相關從業人員與一般社會大眾能對此種行為應遵守之規範,有更清楚之認識。然而從薦證廣告逾一個半世紀之發展史,可以發現相關權利與法制之變遷,實與當代科技、文化與市場之演變習習相關。近年的發展,只是這一連串社會演化的最新一段轉折而已。如欲對此等行為之走向與相關問題之發展趨勢有所掌握,並有適切之法律因應對策,則應對當前網路社會之基礎結構、文化脈絡與市場走向有更深一層之認識。商業性言論(含薦證廣告)之所以較一般言論受到較低之憲法保障,乃因對商業性言論之限制(在合理範圍內),不易對商業活動造成阻礙,寒蟬效應之顧慮也較輕微,同時也因在傳統媒體時代,廣告與非廣告區分相對容易。然而,網路時代之科技、文化與市場變化,已經賦與薦證廣告嶄新的面貌,原有的假設已高度鬆動,薦證廣告之管制,正受到空前的挑戰。基於此等認識,本文主張,薦證廣告之法規範不應該僅求確保對網路上廣告行為之有效涵攝,尚應留意避免對不具商業動機之分享活動造成嚇阻。現有之薦證廣告規範說明,因此有再檢討與修正之必要。
英文摘要   With the Internet deeply interwoven with the fabric of our society and the rise of social media, digital marketing and social marketing have been the buzzwords of 21-century marketing. Endorsements and testimonials, in particular those propagated through the words of ordinary users, have been on the rise as a result. To give proper guidance to cyber-marketing practitioners, the Fair Trade Commission of Taiwan revised its Endorsements and Testimonials Guides three times, in late 2013, early 2015 and earlier this year respectively, to erase any doubt that endorsements and testimonials propagated online are also forms of advertising, and thus should be mindful of the perimeters for lawful advertising. In particular, it emphasizes the need to disclose any material connections between an endorser and an advertiser. The history of commercial endorsements and testimonials, however, reminded us how a once despised advertising technique grew into a staple in modern media culture following a series of changes in technology and society. Thus, to gain a proper perspective of the ongoing evolution in online advertising through end-user testimonials necessitates closer examinations of the architectural, social and economic conditions of cyberspace. As the first large-scale many-to-many media, the Internet has not only brought us an expressive, chatty and vibrant online culture but also given rise to pervasive tacit advertising through end-user testimonials. Paid testimonials and independent product reviews are no longer clearly distinguishable, with many shades of gray lying in between. Two of the old assumptions underscoring lowered constitutional protection for commercial speech-one pointing to commercial speech's greater resistance to chilling effect and the other pointing to a well-defined target-are suddenly no longer valid. Requiring disclosure of material connections as outlined in the newest Guides, while might be welcome for bringing much needed transparency to the scene, could therefore burden non-commercial speech unfairly (and unconstitutionally). Some adjustments are desired.