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臺灣期刊論文索引

摘要

本篇出處 歷史人類學學刊 15:2 2017.10[民106.10] 頁129-167
篇名 居國中以避國--大沙畢與清代移民外蒙古之漢人及其後裔的蒙古化(1768~1830)
作者 蔡偉傑
中文摘要   本文受到「華南研究」與「新清史」兩種取向的啟發,將研究地域移到清朝的內亞邊疆,利用烏蘭巴托與臺北的檔案館所庋藏之蒙漢文民間文書,以清代漢人移民及其後代在外蒙古的蒙古化為主題,探討清代蒙古的佛教組織作為次官方權威在滿洲統治者,蒙古原住民與漢人移民三方的互動中所起的關鍵作用。這些漢人移民以商人為主,也有傭工,農夫與石匠。他們多半來自華北,以山西居多。當中有些人領有照票,有些則無。領有照票者,其照票亦多半已過期。他們在當地成家立業,取蒙名,娶蒙女,長達數十年。其後代亦取蒙名,有漢名的極少。由於病重或衰老而無法回到關內原籍,擔心妻小孤苦無依,故將其妻子,兒孫與家産奉獻給哲布尊丹巴呼圖克圖,成為大沙畢的屬民與財產。這些漢商的後代藉此由民籍轉入蒙旗籍,在法律上成為蒙古人的一份子,並取得在蒙古合法居留的權利。這些人後來很有可能都認同自己為蒙古人。更重要的是,他們得到蒙古社會的接納。透過訴諸蒙古當地佛教制度的權威,這些漢商得以保全自己的家產,避免因清朝官府追緝或內地親戚要求瓜分財產而蒙受損失,並保證其妻小生計無虞,因而達到「居國中以避國」的目的。
英文摘要   In the last two decades, two scholarly approaches, the "South China Studies School'' and the "New Qing History", have made significant contributions to the study of late imperial Chinese history. The former developed from studies on southern China, and is focused on studying the ritual, organization and formation of Chinese society using materials collected through fieldwork. The latter views the Qing regime as both a Chinese and an Inner Asian empire, and explores parallels between the Qing and other early modern Eurasian empires using newly-available archival sources in both Chinese and non-Chinese languages (mainly Manchu). hough both schools have focused on the relationship between the margins of society and the state, the role of intermediate levels of authority has not been a main focus of concern. After outer Mongolia submitted to the Qing Empire in 1691. Mongol-Han segregation policies were extended by the Qing government to outer Mongolia. Despite the policy, some Han Chinese settlers mostly merchants and farmers) in violation of Qing law married Mongol women, raised children adopted Mongol ways of life, and managed to live peacefully with the Mongols in Mongolia. This paper focuses on these Mo Han Chinese settlers and their descendants Drawing on Mongolian and Chinese sources, this paper delineates their background and life in Mongolia, demonstrating their changing legal status and culture, and emphasizing the critical role of the Great Shabi, the lay disciples of the Jibzundamba Khutugtu, in this process. This paper aims to explore the criteria that Han Chinese settlers and their offspring needed to meet in order to be accepted and integrated into the borderland society, and the limits of integration due to state policies and laws. We see how Han Chinese dealt with the local Mongol authorities beneath the central state and how even within the state they managed to evade state sanction and surveillance.