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摘要

本篇出處 清華學報 48:3 2018.09[民107.09] 頁595-629
篇名 賽夏語疑問詞及其疑問範疇研究
作者 葉美利
中文摘要   本文透過構詞分析探討賽夏語疑問詞所表達的語意範疇,含基本語意範疇涵蓋哪些以及範疇間的關聯性為何。研究發現賽夏語的基本疑問範疇包含人、物、空間、動作與數量。表空間概念的處所疑問詞除了能與不同表路徑與靜態空間概念的詞彙前綴結合表達更細緻的處所疑問之外,並能透過加綴衍生時間疑問詞與方式疑問詞,選擇疑問詞亦是以空間為本透過語用推論(pragmatic inference)延伸而來。疑問動詞在世界語言少見(Hagège 2008),凸顯動作疑問這個概念鮮以單純詞表示,但賽夏語存有詢問動作的疑問詞powa',且表示原因與目的的疑問詞皆是由此動作疑問詞經由隱喻或轉喻發展而來。動作這個概念在賽夏語的獨立性亦展現在數量的疑問:賽夏語以黏著疑問詞-pilaz詢問與動作相關的數概念。
英文摘要   This paper deals with the concepts questioned by interrogative words in Saisiyat, a Formosan language spoken in the northwestern mountainous area of Taiwan. Through morphological decomposition, it is found that the conceptual domains under question include person, object, space, action, and quantity. Spatial interrogative words are combined with morphemes denoting such concepts as source, goal, or path to express specific questions concerning location. In addition, selection, time, and manner interrogative words are derived from spatial interrogative words via metonymic pragmatic inference and metaphoric extension. Although interrogative verbs are reported to be rare in world languages (Hagège 2008), action and quantity interrogative words in Saisiyat manifest themselves as verbs. From the action domain, question words for purpose and cause are derived. The status of action as an independent category is also evident in question words for quantity, where Saisiyat sets aside a bound morpheme, -pilaz, to form questions concerning actions or events.