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摘要

本篇出處 體育學報 52:1 2019.03[民108.03] 頁127-142
篇名 阿布瓦希視域的運動員集體創傷記憶研究
作者 孫佳婷
中文摘要   緒論:在競技運動充滿規訓的高強度訓練與競賽環境中,各種創傷事件都可能造成運動員隱晦的個人與集體創傷記憶。但綜觀既有研究對此仍少有著墨,基於對競技運動員生命歷程的關注,本研究提出下列兩個研究問題:競技運動員的個人創傷記憶與集體創傷記憶樣貌為何?個人創傷記憶如何進一步連結集體創傷記憶?方法:本研究以法國社會學家莫里斯.阿布瓦希之「集體記憶」論述,對競技運動員之創傷記憶進行詮釋性分析。結果:由於創傷本質之難以承受性,個人創傷記憶往往呈現破碎之態,其內容取決於曾經歷的創傷事件與創傷情境,常見的影響因素則包含他者態度、生理傷害、環境制度、團體連帶、失敗經驗、存在感與成就感等。藉由不同媒介或記憶場,個人創傷記憶得以自互動過程中的選擇、重述、調節、整合與形塑,與他人的創傷記憶產生連結,進而在社會框架下召喚/揭示集體創傷記憶的存在,並使重構得以可能。不同個體受自我詮釋及社會性質等多重因素影響,從不同視角呈現出創傷記憶的歧異面向,使集體創傷記憶樣貌雖與個人創傷記憶相似,但更為完整、立體且具有連續性,共構性的持續開展亦使集體創傷記憶樣貌呈現不斷微調的動態性。結論:透過阿布瓦希帶有社會建構性質的視域,可發現運動員的集體創傷記憶受到創傷事件、特定社會框架中的自我詮釋及集體共構性所影響,並經由運動員在個人創傷記憶上的交流往復所召喚/揭示。集體創傷記憶與個人創傷記憶呈現並存之姿,且不斷相互形塑樣貌。
英文摘要   Introduction: In the environment of sports with highly intensive training and competition as well as full of discipline, the various possible traumatic episodes may result in individual or collective traumatic memory of athletes. However, there is still a lack of existing research on this topic. Based on the attention to the life course of the competitive athlete, this research puts forward the following two research questions: What is the patterns of individual traumatic memory and the collective traumatic memory of athletes? How does athletes' individual traumatic memory further connects collective traumatic memory? Methods: The discourse of "collective memory" which was proposed by French sociologist Maurice Halbwachs was used for interpretive analyze the traumatic memory of athletes. Results: Because of the unbearable nature of trauma, traumatic memory of individuals often present broken appearances. Its contents depend on the traumatic events and traumatic situations people has experienced, and the common influencing factors include the attitude of other people, physical injury, environmental system, group joint, failure experience, sense of existence and achievement, etc. Through different media or memory sites, the traumatic memory of individuals can recall and reveal collective memory under the social framework by connecting with the traumatic memory of other people from selection, restatement, regulation, integration and shaping in the process of interaction. This also makes reconstruction possible. Different individuals are influenced by multiple factors such as self-interpretation and social nature, the different perspectives of traumatic memory they provide are showing that the collective traumatic memory appearance is similar to the individual traumatic memory, but it is more complete, stereoscopic and continuous. The continuous development of co-constructedness also shows the dynamic of adjustment of collective traumatic memory appearance. Conclusions: Through Maurice Halbwachs's social constructive horizon, it can be found that athletes' collective traumatic memory is affected by traumatic events, self-interpretation and collective co-constructedness in a specific social framework. It is also recalled and revealed through athletes' exchanges and communications of their individual traumatic memory. The collective traumatic memory and the personal traumatic memory present coexistence and constantly shape the appearances of each other.