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摘要

本篇出處 臺灣國際研究季刊 15:3 2019.秋[民108.秋] 頁37-56
篇名 南非的制憲運動
作者 謝國斌
中文摘要   本文旨在探討1990年代初期南非的制憲運動,檢視南非如何藉由制憲的過程來進行民主化的政治轉型:從一個實施種族隔離政策的南非,轉變爲民主的南非。其過程包含了終止敵對的協商、過渡時期的安排、安排與舉行民主選舉、協商與草擬新憲法、施行與維持新憲法秩序等。本文主要研究問題包括:究竟這段期間各造的衝突點爲何?他們如何妥協?採取什麼樣的機制與原則?施行成效如何?最後的憲法安排又是如何?本文從歷史社會學的觀點來探究南非制憲運動的前因、過程與結果,並試圖從此個案獲得啓發。本文結論:制憲是一個過程,是一個政治轉型的過程,也是化解衝突的工具,而最終憲法的制定只是政治轉型的重要里程碑而已。
英文摘要   The purpose of this article is to explore the constitution-making movement in South Africa in the early 1990s and examine how South Africa has undergone a political transformation through constitution making: from an apartheid ethnocracy to a democracy. The whole process includes negotiations to end hostilities, arrangements for transitional periods, arrangements for holding democratic elections, negotiating and drafting new constitutions, and implementing and maintaining a new constitutional order. The primary research questions include: What were the major conflicts among oppositional parties during this period? How did they compromise? What kind of mechanisms and principles were adopted? What was the final constitutional arrangement? Based on the perspective of historical sociology, this article explores the backgrounds, processes, and results of South African constitution making, and expects to gain some inspirations from this case. In conclusion, this paper finds that constitution making is a process, a process of political transformation, and an instrument for resolving conflicts. The final constitutional formulation is only an important milestone in political transformation.